nature of the Self: theory, image & archetype
In the above image we see the Hindu deity Agni and his consort Svaha. Agni appears in his dual nature, with two heads he faces both God and man. In the Visnu Purana, Agni is said to be the God of fire. Like Phanes, Agni is the first-born.
While Agni is the first-born and beginning, his consort Svaha is an expression of release. Svaha is called out during a fire (Agni) sacrifice to express release. Conze says Svaha is “an ecstatic shout of joy, expressive of a feeling of complete release” (2001). Agni is mentioned in the Vishnu Purana, one of the oldest of the Puranas, written as early as first century BCE. According to Oldenberg:
“Agni is, next to Indra, the most prominent god of the RigVeda, quantitatively speaking. He is the theme of more than two hundred hymns, and owes his special prominence to the personification of the sacred fire which is present at all Vedic performances. In the hieratic (in distinction from the popular) hymns of the Rig-Veda there will be few cases in which Agni is not more or less directly connected with the sacrifice” (1908).
The word Agni अग्नि may have originated from the Proto-Indo-European languages. In its Latin forms we see the variations: igniō ‘to ignite,‘ ignēscō ‘to kindle, burn,’ igneus ‘fiery,’ ignifer ‘bearing fire’ (from Wikipedia). Carl Jung sees Agni as “an emanation of the inner libido-fire” and at the same time “the sacrificial flame” (Cw 5, para. 246). Mythically, the fire of Agni is said to appear in three forms: in heaven as the sun, in mid-air as lightning, on earth as fire (Dowson, 1879). Agni is the ‘divine mediator’ (Jung, CW 5). Max Miller says:
“It was a familiar idea with the Brahmans to look upon the fire both as the subject and the object of a sacrifice. The fire embraced the offering, and was thus a kind of priest; it carried it to the gods, and was thus a kind of mediator between gods and men. But the fire represented also something divine, a god to whom honor was due, and thus it became both the subject and the object of the sacrifice. Hence the idea that Agni sacrifices himself, that he offers a sacrifice to himself, and likewise that he offers himself as a sacrifice” (cited in Jung CW5).
We might say that the inner libido-fire acts as a mediator between men and gods. In this role Agni may exhaust “his vigor by devouring too many oblations” ( Mahabharata cited in Dowson, 1879). Agni is child of the great parents and in being so assists humanity.
“The representations of [Agni] vary. We have met previously the greatest parents of them all: Heaven and Earth. Their union was conceived in early Indo-European times as the fruitful source of the heavenly gods” (Dowson, 1879, see footnote)
With this understanding of the ‘greatest parents,’ we are at the heart of work: addressing a relation to the primal couple, and the primal scene as source of creation. From this primal scene arises the fire. Dowson continues:
“God Agni, ‘Fire,’ is occasionally regarded as the progenitor of men. There is in this some vague symbolic connection with the process of obtaining fire by friction. This is the Vedic process : the two sticks which are rubbed are conceived as parents. Agni is their child, the first progeny, and, next, possibly, the first man” (ibid).
Agni is born of the parental couple, both in eternal form and temporal, both symbolic and literal. He emerges from the relation between container and contained, from the friction vessel and staff. Agni occurs in the three manifestations of being: pure source, emanation, manifestation. And in each of these forms he is the ‘creative force.’ Carl Jung speaks of the fire sacrifice in Indian thought:
“The pramantha instrument of the manthana (fire sacrifice), is conceived under a purely sexual aspect in India, the fire-stick being the phallus or man, and the bored wood under-neath the vulva or woman. The fire that results from the boring is the child, the divine son Agni. The two pieces of wood are ritually known as pururavas urvasi, and, when personified, are thought of as man and woman. The fire is born from the genitals of the woman” (CW 5, para. 210).
Weber describes the ritual is as follows:
“A sacrificial fire is kindled by rubbing two fire-sticks together. One of the fire-sticks is taken up with the words: “Thou art the birth-place of fire,” and two blades of grass are placed upon it: “Ye are the two testicles.” The priest then places on them the adhararani (the underlying piece of wood), saying: “Thou art Urvasi,” and anoints the uttargrani (uppermost piece) with butter: “Thou art the power” (semen). This is then placed on the adhararani, with the words: “Thou art Pururavas.” Rubbing them together three times the priest says: “I rub thee with the Gayatrimetrum: I rub thee with the Trishtubhmetrum: I rub thee with the Jagatimetrum” (cited in Jung CW5, para 210).
In this regard Jung also cites the Rig Veda:
“Here is the gear for friction, here tinder is made ready for the spark. Bring the mistress of the people: we will rub Agni in ancient fashion forth. In the two fire-sticks lies Jatavedas, safe as the seed in pregnant women; Daily let Agni be praised by men who watch and worship with oblations. Let this (staff) enter into her as she lies there outstretched, 0 you skilled ones; Straightway she conceives, has given birth to the fructifier: With his red pillar lighting his path, the son of Ila is born from the precious wood” (para. 211)
Above, Agni is the fructifier, the giver of light and warmth, the child that is born from divine coupling, in both literal and symbolic fire. Agni is the ‘creative force,’ but he is also the destructive force. Fire both ignites and consumes, and through this he offers transformation through both creation and sacrifice. Dawson (1879) says:
“Agni can be devouring element and intelligent god at one and the same time. Even the Epic poet in the Mahabharata stops to wonder: “There is but one Agni, yet is he kindled manifold”; and Agni himself is made to say : “Because I can multiply myself by the power of mental concentration (yoga), therefore am I present in the bodies (of men, as vital fire).”
Agni is both within and without. Jung says:
“The Brahmans to look upon the fire both as the subject and the object of a sacrifice. The fire embraced the offering, and was thus a kind of priest; it carried it to the gods, and was thus a kind of mediator between gods and men. But the fire represented also something divine, a god to whom honour was due, and thus it became both the subject and the object of the sacrifice. Hence the idea that Agni sacrifices himself, that he offers a sacrifice to himself, and likewise that he offers himself as a sacrifice” (CW 5).
This whole idea of creator-created, container-contained is related to speech and the capacity for symbolization. Carl Jung cites the Aitareya Upanishad:
Then he drew forth a Person (purusha) from the waters and shaped him. He brooded upon him, and when he had brooded him forth, a mouth split open like an egg. From the mouth came speech, and from speech fire.
And again in the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad:
“Yajfiavalkya, what is the light of man?”
“The sun is his light,” he answered. “It is by the light of the sun that a man rests, goes forth, does his work and returns.”
“Quite so, Yajfiavalkya. But when the sun is set, what then is the light of man?”
“The moon is his light,” he answered. “It is by the light of the moon that a man rests; goes forth, does his work and returns.”
“Quite so, Yajfiavalkya. But when the sun is set, and the moon is set, what then is the light of man?”
“Fire is his light,” he answered. “It is by the light of the fire that a man rests, goes forth, does his work and returns.”
“Quite so, Yajfiavalkya. But when the sun is set, and the moon is set, and the fire has gone out, what then is the light of man?”
“Speech is his light,” he answered. “It is by the light of speech that a man rests, goes forth, does his work and returns.”
“Quite so, Yajfiavalkya. But when the sun is set, and the moon is set, and the fire has gone out, and speech is hushed, what then is the light of man?”
“Self is his light,” he answered. “It is by the light of the Self that a man rests, goes forth, does his work and returns” (cited in Carl Jung CW 5, para 231).
The light of man: sun and moon as mother and father of the living soul. Fire as the passionate child-flame, lighting the darkness of night. Even in absolute darkness we have speech, symbols. If speech is hushed we have Self; Self permeates all things.
Carl Jung, Cw 5, Symbols of Transformation (in US Pubic Domain, first published 1912)
John Dowson, A classical dictionary of Hindu mythology and religion, geography, history, and literature- 1879
Hermann Oldenberg, The Religion of the Veda- 1908